Urine Composition: What’s Normal?

urine is a liquid waste material produced in and excreted by the body. Secreted by the nephritic tubules, it accumulates in the urinary bladder and is excreted via the urethra. While it is composed of 91 to 96 percentage water, it contains many other components, both upstanding and liquid .
Check-up. Medical report and urine test strips - Image Credit: Alexander Raths Check-up. Medical report and urine test strips – image credit : Alexander Raths / Shutterstock

Urine Osmolarity

The urine osmolarity is a way to assess the concentration of the urine and may vary between 50 and 1200 mOsmol/kg. on average, urinary solute comes to about 1000 mOsmol/ day, with approximately 1.4 liters of urine being secreted per day. The amount and concentration of urine varies with the level of effort, the environment, the horizontal surface of hydration, and the intake of salt and protein. The solute concentration is higher in meat-eaters, because of the large sum of urea obtained from kernel, whereas lower solutes are formed in vegetarians who get most of their department of energy from carbohydrates.

Urinary Physical Characteristics

  • The pH of urine is normally around 6.2 with a range of 5.5–7.0.  A high dietary protein and alcohol intake leads to increased pH, while vegetables and fruit bring about a more alkaline pH.
  • The specific gravity of urine may range from 1.002 to 1.037.
  • The mean calorific content of urine may be approximately 100 kcal/day.

Urine Composition

Over 99 percentage of urinary solutes are composed of only 68 chemicals which have a assiduity of 10 mg/L or more. 42 compounds are actually involved. They may be classified as follows :

  • Electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chloride
  • Nitrogenous chemicals such as urea and creatinine
  • Vitamins
  • Hormones
  • Organic acids such as uric acid
  • Other organic compounds

Total Dissolved Solids

full dissolved solids in urine form between 24.8 to 37.1 g/kg. urinary solids are primarily made up of organic count, largely volatile solids. urine has big amounts of nitrogen, morning star, and potassium. Nitrogen capacity in urine is high, by and large in urea, which makes up more than 50 percentage of the entire organic acids. This includes urea from protein metabolism, sodium and potassium both of which come from food. Dry solids therefore comprise 14-18 percentage nitrogen, 13 percentage carbon, and 3.7 percentage each of potassium and phosphorus. The largest elimination of these substances from the body is through urine.

Nitrogen Excretion

nitrogen in urine is excreted by and large as urea, with about 11 g per day being the average elimination of nitrogen. It is most significantly affected by dietary protein intake, with a correlation of 0.91 existing between protein in diet and urinary nitrogenous components. About 80 percentage of the dietary intake of nitrogen is balanced by the urinary body waste of nitrogenous compounds. Urinary urea concentration ranges from 9 to 23 g/L.
Creatinine is another important nitrogenous compound in urine, and its degree depends on the consistency mass and brawn aggregate, arsenic well as old age. Gender differences may be correlated with these. On average, creatinine production in the body is about 1.6 g/day.
Nitrate is a one-third nitrogenous compound in urine, with increased concentrations if the person has a high protein diet.
In accession to causing alterations in urinary nitrogen concentrations, protein in diet besides affects the levels of early minerals such as morning star and potassium. additionally, an extremely low inhalation of protein may affect calcium levels.

Calcium in Urine

Calcium elimination is affected by protein consumption, as above, and is heavy influenced by sodium body waste. A low sodium diet, consequently, will decrease calcium body waste and vice versa.
A normal urinary sample from an pornographic collected over 24 hours should receive a calcium level of 100 to 250 mg .

Other Ions

other less common ionic groups in urine include ammonium, sulfates from amino acids, and phosphates depending on parathyroid gland hormone levels .

Overall Solute Concentrations

The assiduity of the follow constituents in urine may be regarded a s a careful approximation :

  • Urea: 9.3 g/dL
  • Creatinine: 0.670 g/ L
  • Sodium: 1.17 g/L
  • Potassium: 0.750 g/L
  • Chloride: 1.87 g/L


Further Reading

reference : https://nutritionline.net
Category : Healthy