Healthy Eating for Life to Prevent and Treat Diabetes by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Paperback

Read an Excerpt

Healthy Eating for Life to Prevent and Treat Diabetes

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-43598-8

Chapter One

Understanding Diabetes Diabetes is a two-way street. For excessively many people it has presented unplayful health challenges, but we know that it can improve and, in some cases, even disappear with the correct diet and life style changes. This bible will give you the data you need to prevent, pull off, or flush reverse diabetes. In the early 1980s, evidence began to emerge showing that Type 2 ( sometimes called adult-onset ) diabetes could be dramatically improved by diets that stepped beyond the usual regimens doctors frequently prescribed. And modern research besides has shown striking links between diet and Type 1 ( or childhood-onset ) diabetes. fortunately, the most effective diet for people with diabetes is n’t very a diet at all. It requires simple substitutions that are a breeze to make-once you know what to look for. If you or person you care about is facing diabetes, you will soon have potent modern tools at your disposal-many of which are ampere close as your supermarket-to make your life simple. This bible will provide you with a comprehensive examination, user-friendly guide to nutrition and fitness for people with diabetes, including the impact of diet on Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes. We will see how to use a low-fat, high-fiber diet for controlling, improving, and evening reversing the disease. We will explore carbohydrate-counting, analyze the nutritional contentedness of comfortable recipes, and learn about diabetic exchanges.Powerful methods for weight management ; controlling rake glucose levels, rake cholesterol levels, and rake pressure ; and preventing diabetes are all tucked into these pages. And, if you are a health professional ferment in this area, you will find up-to-date, prove techniques for changing its course.

Diabetes Basics Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since ancient times. In 1552 B.C., the egyptian journal Ebers Papyrus described this painless disease that caused body atrophy and personnel casualty of large amounts of urine. Aretaeus, a greek doctor in the beginning century A.D., gave the condition its mention. Noting that it caused increase micturition, he called it “ diabetes ” from the greek give voice for siphon. In the seventeenth hundred it was renamed “ diabetes mellitus. ” The son mellitus, which means “ honey ” in Latin, referred to the sweetness of the urine. In the nineteenth hundred, scientists learned that the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach, produces hormones and enzymes that are crucial in the digestion and uptake of nutrients in the body. german diagnostician Paul Langerhans discovered clusters of cells ( nowadays called the islets of Langerhans ) in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that helps sugars and the build blocks of protein enter the cells of the body. People with diabetes are either not able to make or not able to properly use insulin. Because insulin is affected by every meal we eat, goodly nutrition is key to improving diabetes. A range of dietary recommendations from fasting and very-low-calorie diets to high-carbohydrate diets and high-protein diets have all been tested in the treatment of this disease. Through scientific study and trial and error, we have learned about the particular advantage of complex carbohydrates and the damaging effects of dietary adipose tissue for people with diabetes. But only in the by few years have we come to understand what is the optimum diet for managing diabetes. Hormones and Sugar The starchy separate of many foods-breads, potatoes, and beans, for example-is made up of many molecules of a natural boodle called “ glucose, ” bonded in concert. When food enters the digestive tract, these boodle molecules come apart, and glucose passes from the small intestine into the bloodstream. In response to this inflow of sugar, the pancreas releases insulin into the rake so it can carry the glucose into the cells of the body. Normal, healthy blood sugar levels are crucial for keeping your consistency working properly. When this system is not functioning as it should and blood sugar levels are by and large besides high gear, then diabetes results. Insulin plays many important roles in the soundbox in addition to helping glucose get into cells. Because insulin is released when you have recently eaten, insulin besides discourages the breakdown of fat from your fatness stores. This makes arrant smell. You do n’t need to pull energy out of your storage sites when you have newly energy coming in from food. And insulin helps your muscles take up raw amino acids-the build up blocks of protein-for use in muscleman haunt and growth. Types of Diabetes Diabetes broadly occurs when the body does not produce insulin ( or not enough to be effective ) and glucose builds up in the blood. alternatively, sometimes diabetes results flush when the pancreas is making enough insulin, but your torso cells are resistant to its effects. Insulin is there, glucose is available, but the cells do n’t open up and let it in the way they should. In either character, some of the built-up glucose in the blood ends up passing through the kidneys, carrying water system along with it, resulting in the increase micturition that is much the first tip-off that something is amiss. When this happens, dehydration, increased hunger, blurred vision, and fatigue can occur. Prolonged, elevated rake glucose levels wreak havoc over the long term, so it is important to take the simpleton steps outlined in this book to keep it under control. The three most common types of diabetes-Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes-are described below. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called insulin-dependent, childhood-onset, or juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for 5 to 10 percentage of diagnose cases. It can occur at any age, but is diagnosed more frequently in younger people and is more coarse in caucasian than in non-Caucasian populations. At attack, Type 1 diabetics are normally list and often have recently experienced system of weights passing. In Type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin can no longer do their job. The most common cause of Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune response in which the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas have been destroyed by the soundbox ‘s own immune system. Scientists are investigating why some people ‘s immune systems attack their own pancreatic cells. It appears that a combination of genetic and environmental factors conspire to trigger this disease. Some of the culprits under investigation are cow ‘s milk proteins and viruses in genetically susceptible individuals. If you have Type 1 diabetes, you ‘ll need insulin injections to keep your blood carbohydrate under manipulate. Injected insulin acts the lapp way as it does in a person without diabetes, by bringing rake glucose to the cells of the body. however, medicine alone is not adequate to successfully manage Type 1 diabetes. Diet and exercise make all the dispute in whether you stay goodly and vibrant throughout life or yield to the problems diabetes can cause. Type 2 Diabetes The huge majority of people with diabetes-90 to 95 percent-have the Type 2 form, besides known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes. The pancreas is able to produce insulin, but the cells of the body are immune to it. The problem appears to be that the insulin receptors on the cells do n’t recognize insulin and wo n’t allow the glucose to enter. This “ insulin immunity, ” as it is called, is frequently a consequence of carrying excess body adipose tissue. Over time, some people with Type 2 diabetes besides make besides little insulin to get their tolerant cells to respond. If this occurs, they may besides be given insulin. unfortunately, diabetes is on the ascent, a good consequence of the growing numbers of corpulence and corpulent people in many countries. Although most people with Type 2 diabetes develop it as adults, children are not entirely immune. As more kids lead sedentary lifestyles and put on extra weight, the number developing Type 2 diabetes continues to rise. If you have Type 2 diabetes, you are not probable to have any symptoms for the first gear respective years of its development. In fact, only about 50 percentage of the people with Type 2 diabetes are mindful they have it. however, there are some clues that indicate who is at increased risk for the disease. People who develop Type 2 diabetes tend to be : * adults * overweight * from a family with a history of diabetes * mothers with a history of gestational diabetes * inactive * diagnosed with impaired glucose allowance

* on diets high in kernel, dairy products, and other fatty foods Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs during pregnancy, affecting about 4 percentage of all meaning women. The problem develops when a meaning womanhood is not able to use insulin by rights, possibly because pregnancy hormones counteract its actions. The discipline normally goes aside at the end of the pregnancy, but it is much a sign that Type 2 diabetes is around the corner unless you take steps to prevent it. normally, more than 50 percentage of women with gestational diabetes go on to develop Type 2 diabetes, but this is much because they did not receive proper data about prevention. See chapter 11 for more data. Symptoms and Diagnosis But how do I know if I have it ? And, if so, is it the kind that will go away ? Diagnosing this disease is a square matter. The rest of this book will show you the brawny steps you can take to tackle the problem. Diabetes develops gradually, and sometimes these warning signs can go unnoticed for years. But there are several symptoms you can look for : * increased micturition * excess hunger or fatigue * weight personnel casualty * dry, itchy clamber * blurred sight * tickling or lost feeling in the feet * sores that bring around lento If you experience any of these symptoms, be sure to discuss them with your doctor. These symptoms alone are not adequate to tell whether you have diabetes or, if you do have it, what kind of diabetes you have. Your doctor can do several tests to determine if you have this disease, and, if sol, what to do about it. Testing for Diabetes The doctor will use one or more of three rake glucose tests to make a diagnosis. If the test suggests diabetes, the doctor of the church will confirm the result on another day. The first quiz checks the amount of glucose in your bloodstream at any time during the day without consideration of the meter of the final meal eat. A glucose respect of 200 mg/dl ( 11.1 mmol/l in the external units used in most countries other than the United States ) or more, plus symptoms such as increased micturition, increased hunger, and unexplained weight personnel casualty ( the most common symptoms ), are full indicators of diabetes. The second blood examination is a fast blood glucose. The test is done after you have fasted for at least eight hours, meaning that you can not eat or drink anything except water for eight hours prior to the lineage test. normally, fasting glucose should be in the range of 70 to 110 mg/dl. A fast plasma glucose tied of 126 mg/dl ( 7.0 mmol/l ) or higher indicates diabetes. The third gear test, an oral glucose tolerance test, measures how well your body deals with a dose of carbohydrate. normally, blood carbohydrate rises after eating and then comes binding down to near or within the normal range ( 70 to 120 mg/dl ) in one to two hours. Higher values mean your body is having trouble moving glucose out of the blood and into your cells. In the oral glucose tolerance test, you drink a honeyed solution of glucose blend with water system. During the following two to three hours, a series of lineage tests is taken. A plasma glucose at two hours of more than 140 mg/dl ( 11.1 mmol/l ) or of more than 200 mg/dl at any meter during the examination period indicates diabetes. As with the early tests, the findings should be reconfirmed on a distinguish day. once your doctor determines whether you have diabetes, it is authoritative to speak with him or her about the vital character of nutrition and to make the most of your treatment. The importance of diet is discussed throughout this book, helping you to better understand the crucial function it plays in the management of diabetes. Impaired Fasting Glucose Some people may have blood glucose levels that are n’t high adequate for a diagnosis of diabetes, but they are still besides high to be considered healthy. mar fasting glucose or afflicted glucose allowance -sometimes called “ prediabetes ” -affects about 13.4 million Americans, and more and more people in other countries. To diagnose it, your doctor will look for a fast blood glucose value of 110 to 125 mg/dl or a two-hour, postmeal blood sugar level of 140 to 200 mg/dl. These levels are higher than normal, but lower than the levels seen in diabetes. presently 25 to 30 percentage of individuals with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance finally end up with Type 2 diabetes. Researchers are trying to work out which people in this class will actually develop diabetes and how they can stop it from happening. If you have impaired fast glucose, it is essential to work with your repair, to adjust your diet as outlined in chapter 2 and discussed in more detail in chapter 3, and to begin regular exercise to head off the problem. Understanding Your Blood Sugar Test

When looking at your rake sugar numbers, be sure to ask or notice which character of test was done. Fasting blood sugar for people without diabetes should be less than 110 mg/dl, while a two-hour, postglucose load respect should be less than 140 mg/dl. Before consume, or approximately four to five hours after your end meal, a good blood boodle compass for a person with diabetes is 70 to 150 mg/dl. When people with diabetes have good glucose control, their blood boodle levels return to these values within two to three hours after the glucose cargo. Who Should Be Tested? Because diabetes can sometimes go unnoticed for years, it ‘s a beneficial idea for anyone forty-five years of age or older to be tested for diabetes by a checkup doctor. If you have no symptoms, you should be retested once every three years. Younger adults should be tested if they weigh more than 120 percentage of their desirable body weight or have a close kin extremity with diabetes, as they are at a higher risk of developing diabetes. african Americans, hispanic Americans, Native Americans, asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders besides are at a greater risk than Caucasians. A womanhood delivering a baby weighing more than nine pounds and who has been diagnosed with gestational diabetes ( i.e., diabetes during pregnancy ) besides is at risk for Type 2 diabetes.


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