Water – a vital nutrient

The human body can last weeks without food, but only days without water. The torso is made up of 50-75 % water. Water forms the basis of rake, digestive juices, urine and perspiration, and is contained in lean muscle, fat and bones. As the body can ’ triiodothyronine storehouse water, we need fresh supplies every day to make up for losses from the lungs, skin, urine and faeces ( poo ). The sum we need depends on our body size, metamorphosis, the weather, the food we eat and our natural process levels.

Water in our bodies

Some facts about our home water add include :

  • Body water content is higher in men than in women and falls in both with age.
  • Most mature adults lose about 2.5 to 3 litres of water per day. Water loss may increase in

    hot weather

    and with prolonged exercise.

  • Elderly people lose about 2 litres per day.
  • An air traveller can lose approximately 1.5 litres of water during a three-hour flight.
  • Water loss needs to be replaced.

Importance of water

Water is needed for most body functions, including to :

  • Maintain the health and integrity of every cell in the body.
  • Keep the bloodstream liquid enough to flow through blood vessels.
  • Help eliminate the by-products of the body’s metabolism, excess electrolytes (for example,


    and potassium), and urea, which is a waste product formed through the processing of dietary



  • Regulate body temperature through



  • Moisten mucous membranes (such as those of the lungs and mouth).
  • Lubricate and cushion



  • Reduce the risk of

    urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    , such as


    by keeping

    the bladder

    clear of bacteria.

  • Aid digestion and prevent



  • Moisturise

    the skin

    to maintain its texture and appearance.

  • Carry nutrients and oxygen to cells.
  • Serve as a shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord and in the amniotic sac surrounding the foetus in



Water in our food

Most foods, evening those that look hard and dry, contain water system. The body can get about 20 % of its total water requirements from solid foods entirely.

The process of digesting foods besides produces a small sum of water as a by-product which can be used by the body. Water sourced this direction can provide around 10 % of the body ’ randomness water requirements. The remaining 70 % or so of water required by the body must come from fluids ( liquids ).

The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend that we drink batch of water system but how much is enough ?

The amount of fluid your body needs each day depends on several factors, such as :

  • your gender
  • age
  • how active you are

  • whether you’re pregnant or


  • lifestyle.

How much fluid to drink each day

Infants 0–6 months*  0.7 litres  Infants 7–12 months#  0.8 litres total (with 0.6 litres as fluids) Girls and boys 1–3 years  1 litre (about 4 cups) Girls and boys 4–8 years 1.2 litres (about 5 cups) Boys 9–13 years  1.6 litres (about 6 cups) Boys 14–18 years 1.9 litres (about 7–8 cups) Girls 9–13 years 1.4 litres (about 5–6 cups) Girls 14–18 years  1.6 litres (about 6 cups)  Men 19 years+ 2.6 litres (about 10 cups) Women 19 years+ 2.1 litres (about 8 cups) Pregnant girls 14–18 years 1.8 litres (about 7 cups) Pregnant women 19 years+ 2.3 litres (about 9 cups) Lactating girls 14–18 years  2.3 litres (about 9 cups) Lactating women 19 years+ 2.6 litres (about 10 cups) * from breastmilk or formula
# from breastmilk, formula, food, plain water system and other beverages

These adequate intakes include all fluids, but it ’ s preferable that the majority of inhalation is from complain water ( except for infants where fluid intake is met by breastmilk or baby convention ).

Some people may need less fluid than this. For exemplar, people :

  • Who eat a lot of high-water content foods (such as

    fruits and vegetables


  • In cold environments.
  • Who are largely sedentary.

other people might need more fluid than the total listed and will need to increase their fluid intake if they are :

  • On a

    high-protein diet

    , to help the kidneys process the extra protein.

  • On a

    high-fibre diet

    to help prevent constipation.

  • Vomiting or have


    , to replace the extra fluids lost.

  • Physically active, to replace the extra fluids lost through sweat.
  • Exposed to warm or hot conditions, to replace the extra fluids lost through sweat. 

Although bodily process levels affect the total of fluid needed, there are many factors that influence the fluid needs of athletes during train and rival. For model, it is probable that athletes exercising in balmy conditions will need less fluid than athletes competing at high intensities in quick conditions.

How to get enough fluid in your diet

If the mind of having to drink lots of cups of water system a day doesn ’ thyroxine appeal, don ’ metric ton worry – fluids include fresh water and all other liquids ( such as milk, coffee bean, tea, soup, juice and even voiced drinks ). newly water is the best beverage because it does not contain energy ( kilojoules ) and is best for hydrating the body. Water from the pat is besides by and large free and broadly available wherever you go. however, milk is about 90 % water and is an crucial fluid, specially for children. Just remember to choose full-fat milk for children under 2 years old and low-fat and reduced-fat varieties for everyone else. tea can besides be an authoritative source of fluid. Tea can help you meet your casual fluid recommendations, and is a source of antioxidants and polyphenols, which appear to protect against affection disease and cancer.

If you prefer to get some of your fluids from fruit, drive to eat wholly pieces of fresh fruit alternatively of having fruit juice – you ’ ll still get the delightful fruity juice ( fluids ) but you ’ ll besides benefit from the bonus fiber and nutrients while avoiding the supernumerary sugar found in fruit juice.

Tips for drinking more water

  • Add a squeeze or slice of lemon or lime, or some strawberries or mint leaves to plain water to add variety.
  • Keep a bottle or glass of water handy on your desk or in your bag.
  • Drink some water with each meal and snack.
  • Add ice cubes made from fresh fruit to a glass of water.

Limit mineral water intake

commercially bottle mineral water contains salt, which can lead to fluid retention and bulge, and tied increased rake pressure in susceptible people. Limit the come of mineral water or choose low-sodium varieties ( less than 30 milligram sodium per 100 milliliter ). If you prefer bubbling water, think about getting a home pop body of water maker so you can precisely use tap water and make it fresh when needed.

Fluoride in water

An extra benefit of toast tap ( reticulated or mains ) water in Victoria is that, in most areas, fluoride is added to the water. bottle water does not normally have effective levels of fluoride. fluoridation of wiretap water helps prevent alveolar consonant decay and is a safe and effective way of providing dental health benefits to everyone.

Find out if your area has water system fluoridation.

Avoid sugary and artificially sweetened drinks

The australian Dietary Guidelines recommend all Australians to limit their inhalation of drinks containing added boodle. This includes :

  • sugar-sweetened

    soft drinks

     and cordials

  • fruit drinks
  • vitamin-style waters
  • flavoured mineral waters
  • energy and sports drinks.

Having sugary drinks provides extra energy ( kilojoules ) to the diet, but no other substantive nutrients. There is solid attest of the association between having sugary dinks and surfeit system of weights profit in both children and adults, vitamin a well as reduced bone forte and tooth decay.

Artificially sweetened drinks add identical little energy ( kilojoules ) to the diet and therefore do not contribute directly to weight gain. however, artificially sweetened drinks still maintain the ‘ habit ’ of drinking sweet drinks. They may besides lead to decrease bone density ( as people may drink less milk ) and contribute to tooth decay due to their acidity.


dehydration occurs when the water content of the torso is excessively low. This is well fixed by increasing fluid consumption.

Symptoms of dehydration

Symptoms of dehydration include :

  • thirst
  • headaches

  • lethargy

  • mood changes and slow responses
  • dry nasal passages
  • dry or cracked lips
  • dark-coloured urine
  • weakness
  • tiredness
  • confusion and hallucinations.

If dehydration is not corrected by fluid inhalation, finally micturition stops, the kidneys fail, and the body can ’ thyroxine remove toxic barren products. In extreme point cases, dehydration may result in death.

Causes of dehydration

There are several factors that can cause dehydration including :

  • Not drinking enough water.
  • Increased sweating due to

    hot weather

    , humidity,


     or fever.

  • Insufficient signalling mechanisms in the elderly – sometimes, older adults do not feel thirsty even though they may be dehydrated.
  • Increased output of urine due to a hormone deficiency,



    kidney disease




  • Diarrhoea or vomiting.
  • Recovering from



Who is at risk of dehydration?

Anyone can experience dehydration but there are some people who can be more at gamble – such as babies, children and the aged.

Babies and children

Babies and children are susceptible to dehydration, peculiarly if they are ill. Vomiting, fever and diarrhea can quickly cause dehydration.

dehydration can be a dangerous condition in babies and children. If you suspect dehydration, take your baby or child to the nearest hospital hand brake department immediately.

Some of the symptoms of dehydration in babies and children include :

  • cold skin
  • lethargy
  • dry mouth
  • blue tinge to the skin (as circulation slows down)
  • depressed fontanelle in babies (soft spot on top of the skull where the bones are yet to close).

Elderly people

Older people are frequently at risk of dehydration due to :

  • changes to

    kidney function

    (declines with age)

  • hormonal changes
  • not feeling thirsty (body mechanisms that trigger thirst do not work as well as we age)
  • medication (for example, diuretics and laxatives)
  • chronic illness
  • heat stress

  • limited mobility.

Getting the right balance of fluid intake

not drinking adequate water can increase the risk of kidney stones and, in women, urinary tract infections ( UTIs ). It can besides lower your physical and mental operation, and your salivary gland serve, and tip to dehydration. But did you know that it is possible to drink excessively a lot water and cause a stipulate called hyponatraemia ( urine drunkenness ) ?

Water intoxication (hyponatraemia)

Drinking besides much water can damage the consistency and campaign hyponatraemia ( body of water drunkenness ), although it is pretty rare in the general population.

Hyponatraemia occurs when sodium in the blood, which is needed for muscle contraction and sending nerve impulses, drops to a perilously broken flat.

If bombastic amounts of homely water are consumed in a short menstruation of time, the kidneys can not get rid of enough fluid through urine and the lineage become diluted. Hyponatraemia can lead to :

  • headaches
  • blurred vision
  • cramps (and eventually convulsions)
  • swelling of the brain
  • coma and possibly death. 

For water to reach toxic levels, many litres of water would have to be consumed in a inadequate time period of prison term. Hyponatraemia tends to occur in people with finical diseases or mental illnesses ( for example, in some cases of schizophrenia ), survival athletes and in infants who are fed baby convention that is excessively diluted.

Fluid retention

many people believe that drink water causes fluid memory ( or edema ). In fact, the face-to-face is true. Drinking water helps the body rid itself of excess sodium, which results in less fluid retention.

The body will retain fluid if there is excessively little water in the cells. If the body receives enough water on a unconstipated basis, there will be no indigence for it to hold onto body of water and this will reduce fluent memory.

Where to get help

source : https://nutritionline.net
Category : Healthy