Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis

try is prevailing in modern society and has become a significant global health problem [ 1 ], [ 2 ]. Research suggests that high levels of tension can negatively affect both physical and mental health and are found to be associated with autoimmune diseases [ 3 ], migraines [ 4 ], fleshiness [ 5 ], muscle tension and backache [ 6 ], high cholesterol [ 7 ], coronary affection disease [ 8 ], high blood pressure [ 9 ], and stroke [ 10 ]. In the concluding decade, pastime in research investigating mindfulness-based interventions has increased well [ 11 ]. even though a consensus about an unequivocal functional definition of mindfulness is lacking indeed far [ 12 ], [ 13 ], one of most normally hire definitions of mindfulness was provided by Jon Kabat-Zinn who suggests that mindfulness could be described as a consequence to moment awareness that is cultivated by purposefully paying attention to the present experience, with a non-judgmental attitude [ 14 ]. Interventions utilizing mindfulness techniques have shown efficacy for treating a variety show of mental disorders and in coping with physical or aesculapian conditions, including, among others, chronic trouble [ 15 ], fatigue [ 16 ], stress [ 17 ], [ 18 ], cancer [ 19 ], heart disease [ 20 ], type 2 diabetes [ 21 ], psoriasis [ 22 ], and insomnia [ 23 ].

Mindfulness-based stress reduction ( MBSR ) [ 24 ] is a well-established mindfulness train that has shown to reduce stress, depression, and anxiety [ 25 ], [ 26 ]. MBSR teaches individuals to observe situations and thoughts in a nonjudgmental, nonreactive, and accepting manner. MBSR provides coach in formal mindfulness practices, including body scan, sitting meditation, and yoga. MBSR seeks to change the individual ‘s kinship with nerve-racking thoughts and events by decreasing emotional reactivity and enhancing cognitive appraisal [ 27 ]. The criterion MBSR course of study is conducted in an 8-week integrated group format, which includes weekly 2.5-hour group sessions in addition to a 6-hour daylong retreat.

Although initially developed for chronic annoyance, MBSR has reported positive results among an array of clinical and nonclinical populations, including cancer, health caution professionals, continuing education students, and college undergraduates [ 28 ], [ 29 ], [ 30 ]. Chiesa et aluminum. [ 28 ] were the beginning to systematically investigate the utility of MBSR in healthy individuals. They concluded that MBSR provided a significant nonspecific tone down to large consequence on the reduction of stress in comparison with no-treatment controls. however, there were significant methodological limitations and merely 10 studies were included in the analysis. Eberth and Sedlmeier [ 30 ] conducted a meta-analysis of 38 controlled studies on the effects of mindfulness meditation on psychological wellbeing among a nonclinical population. Among the 38 studies, 17 used MBSR, the results suggested mince effects in reducing stress and negative emotions and in increasing wellbeing. however, the meta-analysis included lone studies that were published before March 2010, had some methodological limitations ( for example, it did not implement PRISMA criteria and it did not include a quality measure ), failed to determine moderators of the watch effects, did not investigate the role of mindfulness in the potency of the interventions, and did not investigate long-run effects of MBSR.

A more holocene qualitative systematic review examined the effects of MBSR on tension management in nonclinical populations in 17 trials dating between January 2009 and 2014 [ 29 ]. The outcomes suggested cocksure effects on both psychological and physiologic measures without quantifying these effects. Overall, the current state of the literature suggests the necessitate for a more taxonomic quantifiable summarization of the effects, mechanisms of actions, and moderators of MBSR for nonclinical populations. therefore, we conducted a comprehensive effect-size analysis with the following objectives : ( 1 ) to quantify the impression size of MBSR for psychological variables ( i.e., anxiety, depression, try, distress, and burnout ) in goodly individuals ; ( 2 ) to investigate and quantify the function of mindfulness in MBSR ; and ( 3 ) to explore moderator variables .

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Category : Healthy