Unhealthy dietary patterns among healthcare professionals and students in Mexico – BMC Public Health

Among the healthcare students and professionals assessed in this study, three DPs were identified : “ Traditional Westernized ”, “ Healthy ” and “ Animal protein and alcoholic beverages ”. After allowance, the “ Traditional Westernized ” DP was positively associated with being younger than 22 years ; the “ Healthy ” DP was positively associated with a daily PA department of energy expending greater than 605 kcal and negatively associated with being younger than 22 years ; and the “ Animal protein and alcoholic beverages ” DP was positively associated with being both a world and a smoker. The “ Traditional Westernized ” DP presented the highest share of variance. A DP that includes a combination of traditional and Western-style foods had already been reported in the mexican population [ 32, 33, 34 ]. Participants in the baseline judgment of the Health Workers Cohort Study ( employees and their relatives from three different health and academic institutions from Mexico ) showed a DP that contained corn tortilla ( a traditional Mexican food ) american samoa well as pastries, refined cereals and easy drinks [ 32 ]. In another cross-section survey, a sample of pornographic women from Tijuana, a mexican city at the Mexico-United States surround, presented a DP containing Mexican burritos and sweets ( traditional foods from northern Mexico ), ampere well as hamburgers and pizza, nosh foods, sweetened drinks, bakery products and peanut butter [ 33 ]. Furthermore, a DP comprised of Mexican food and tortilla in combination with refine grains, desserts, sweets and sugar, snacks, sweet beverages, high-fat dairy, among others, was observed in mexican adolescents ( 14–16 years erstwhile ) from the State of México, in a cross-section study [ 34 ]. No studies were found which evaluated the DPs of only health students or health professionals from Mexico or any other nation. One of the possible reasons for the presence of a DP that included both traditional Mexican and Western-style foods is that Mexico is undergoing a nutritional passage fueled by its urbanization and socioeconomic growth trends [ 1, 2, 35 ]. Although corn and beans are still found in the Mexican DP, the proportion of energy consumption from these foods has decreased in the stopping point 50 years ( corn consumption has dropped from 46.2 to 34 %, and beans from 5.8 to 3.4 % ) [ 36 ]. At the like time, increases have been reported in the proportion of energy obtained from sugar ( from 12.6 to 15.4 % ), vegetable oils ( from 5.6 to 8.2 % ), butter ( from 0.28 to 0.41 % ), poultry ( from 0.64 to 2.4 % ), eggs ( from 0.68 to 1.6 % ) and animal fats ( from 1.1 to 2.2 % ) [ 36 ]. The traditional DP is undergoing a transformation towards a more Western-style DP [ 35, 37 ] characterized by energy-dense foods containing senior high school levels of total and impregnate fats, refined carbohydrates and salt. The higher inhalation levels of these foods are attributable to their increase handiness, sales, and pulmonary tuberculosis [ 1, 2, 35, 37, 38 ]. In Mexico, many foods with these characteristics can be more well acquired and consumed due to an increase in the count of establishments that sell them, including conventional restaurants, small family-operated restaurants, little grocery store stores, supermarkets and convenience stores [ 35, 37 ]. These establishments have benefited from a reduction in the time that people have to cook and from increased advertising of food and beverage products [ 2 ]. This study besides found a positive association between the “ Traditional Westernized ” DP and being under the age of 22 years. A alike consequence was obtained in a cross-sectional study of women from a mexican city : young adults ( 18 to 29 years ) and students received the highest scores on a DP that included both traditional and Western-style foods [ 33 ]. The fact that the young adults in this study ( who are chiefly health university students ) show greater adhesiveness to a DP that includes bakery products, cookies, sugars, refined cereals, firm food, and sweetened beverages may be attributable to the independent barriers to following a healthy diet that were reported by university students in a inspection learn [ 39 ]. These barriers include the postdate : predilection for the taste of insalubrious foods ; lack of self-regulation of behavior and miss of motivation to eat a healthy diet ; lack of skills and time needed to design, buy and prepare or cook goodly foods ; increased appetites and a preference for unhealthy foods as a reaction to emotional states such as stress ; insalubrious dietary influences of friends and syndicate ; the lower cost of insalubrious foods ; and the widespread presence of unhealthy foods in restaurants, dining halls, etc. [ 39 ]. These barriers may besides explain the negative affiliation found between the “ Healthy ” PD and being a scholar.

The second DP identified in this study was “ Healthy ”. A DP like to this one has already been observed in early cross-sectional studies on mexican adults ( 18 to 70 years old ) [ 32, 33 ], and among young study participants from Mexico ( 14 to 16 years erstwhile ) [ 34 ], Brazil ( average long time of 23 years ) [ 40 ] and the US ( 19 to 39 years old ) [ 41, 42 ] in categories such as “ Prudent ” [ 32, 34, 41, 42 ], “ Fruits and vegetables ” [ 40 ] and “ Vegetables ” [ 33 ]. In this study, the “ Healthy ” DP was negatively associated with being younger than 22 years and positively with having a daily PA energy outgo of more than 605 kcal. In the studies mentioned above that have observed this DP, it has besides been found that those who more frequently adhere to a DP comprised of healthy foods are older [ 32, 41 ], less sedentary [ 32 ] and more likely to engage in PA than other subjects [ 40 ]. They besides tend to be women [ 40 ], to have completed more years of education [ 33, 41 ], to present fleshy or fleshiness less frequently [ 41 ] and to smoke less [ 32 ] or be non-smokers [ 34, 40, 41 ]. Despite the absence of an association between DPs and anthropometric variables in this study, waist circumference and BMI were found to be significantly higher among subjects in the third “ Healthy ” DP attachment tertile than among those in the first tertile. This discover may be attributable to subjects with fleshiness wanting to improve their diet and life style in arrange to lose weight or reduce their waist circumference. This leave may besides be attributable to an over-reporting of healthy foods. Over-reporting low energy inhalation has been suggested as being more common in corpulence individuals than in those with a healthy weight. This phenomenon may besides be associated with a body image perturb or, particularly in this event, a desire to meet the social expectations imposed on health professionals [ 43 ].

The third gear DP observed in this study was named “ Animal protein and alcoholic beverages ”. This DP broadly associated with high kernel, egg and alcoholic beverage consumption was previously observed in another cross-section study that evaluated Mexican adults ( 20 to 70 years old ) [ 32 ] under the name of “ High in protein and fat ” [ 32 ]. In line with the findings of this analyze, individuals who followed a DP with these characteristics were more likely to be men [ 32 ] and smokers [ 32 ]. It has besides been shown that DPs with high levels of alcohol consumption tend to be followed in higher percentages by men and smokers [ 18 ].

Although the “ Healthy ” DP was observed among young healthcare professionals assessed in this learn, it was negatively associated with higher waist circumference, body fatty [ 42 ] and BMI [ 34, 42 ] measurements in other studies. The “ Traditional Westernized ” and the “ Animal protein and alcoholic beverages ” DPs were besides observed in this population. Another study on a mexican population has already positively associated the latter two DPs with metabolic syndrome and its components [ 32 ]. The presence of DPs considered insalubrious among these healthcare students and professionals may be explained by the Ecological Model of Health Behavior [ 44, 45 ]. This model states that while food excerpt ( health behavior ) may be positively or negatively influenced by intrapersonal determinants such as health education, attitudes, and prevention skills, it may besides be influenced by the unite actions of interpersonal, organizational, community determinants and public policy. That is, as in the casing of the general population, getting healthcare professionals to follow a “ Healthy ” DP is a question of providing education and ensuring that the attitudes, values, norms, beliefs and behaviors of their social groups ( class, work groups, friends ), social institutions ( schools, workplaces, churches, professional groups ) and the communities to which they belong –in addition to political and business leaders – will encourage individual efforts to engage in healthy behaviors [ 44, 45 ]. however, study data show that a range of organizational barriers ( long work schedules, fault shape, heavy workloads, insufficient staff and brusque, infrequent breaks ), social barriers ( eating habits of peers ), physical workplace barriers ( circumscribed access to healthy foods in dining halls or vending machines, inadequate food planning and conservation facilities, the lower cost and higher handiness of trash food compared to healthy foods ) and individual barriers ( miss of self-efficacy and motivation, and inadequate cognition about nutriment ) make it more difficult for health professionals to engage in goodly consume behaviors [ 46 ]. These barriers could account for the presence of the “ Traditional Westernized ” and “ Animal protein and alcoholic beverages ” DPs in this study sample. Considering the bearing of unhealthy DPs, it is clear that the healthcare students and health professionals who were assessed, and peculiarly those of a unseasoned age, require intervention initiatives aimed at promoting attachment to a healthy DP that will directly benefit their own health and indirectly benefit the health of the cosmopolitan population under their care. To achieve sustainable changes in behavior that are in agate line with the Ecological Model of Health Behavior, public policies must be complemented by interventions at the individual, sociable and organizational [ 46 ] levels. furthermore, the impact of such actions must be assessed to prevent the pervert of resources. Considering the chief dietary problems of this measure population group and based on the main barriers that university students [ 39 ] and health professionals [ 46 ] report as preventing them from following a healthy diet, the pursuit measures ( in conjunction with existing Mexican populace policies such as taxes on sweeten industrialized beverages and junk food, and stepped up regulations on the marketing and label of these foods ) are suggested in decree to promote adhesiveness to a healthy DP within this population : promoting the handiness, affordability and day by day intake of drink in water, vegetables, fruits, and other healthy food choices at school, workplaces and public venues ; developing or improving workplace areas in which food is train and stored. The results presented in this study should be interpreted with consideration for their limitations. Stratified random sample by historic period and sexual activity was attempted at the beginning of the study, but it was subsequently changed to volunteer sampling due to unwillingness on the contribution of the selected population to participate. consequently, our results hera can not be generalized to the population of study. however, considering the circumscribed scientific tell available on the description of the DPs of healthcare personnel, this analysis serves as a starting charge to know the food combinations routinely consumed by this population group. Another restriction is the fact that performing the PCA could lead researchers to make immanent decisions regarding how diets should be assessed, how food groupings should be created, the numeral of components that should be retained, rotation modes and assigning names to DPs [ 16, 18, 47 ]. however, the PCA is a statistical method that is wide used to generate DPs for published scientific studies [ 18, 32, 40, 41, 42 ], and DP descriptions may represent accustomed food inhalation and handiness more accurately than assessments of individual foods and nutrients within a learn population. furthermore, the DPs observed in this group population were exchangeable to those presented in other studies that evaluated mexican populations. In addition, and in order to minimize the limitations of the PCA, this study provides detailed descriptions about how decisions were made a well as their theoretical bases. last, diets were evaluated by train nutritionists using a validated SQFFQ which, despite being national to memory bias and the under- or over-reporting of food consumption, offers advantages for the appraisal of accustomed diet ( it enables food consumption to be estimated over relatively long periods and for the effects of daily food choice variations to be minimized ) compared to early evaluation techniques [ 48 ]. Furthermore, an adaptation was made to account for the seasonality of the foods surveyed .

source : https://nutritionline.net
Category : Healthy